Where the different rules of physics apply:
Regular, otherwise known as Newtonian physics only applies on the average, everyday, scale. That is, objects larger than an atom at low energy, where energy in this context refers to velocity and (sometimes) temperature.
Once you step it up, increasing to high energy levels, (when velocity approaches c, the speed of light) newtonian physics no longer works due do what we call relativity, and observations or calculations need to take into account this effect usually using some form of the Lorentz factor,
gamma = [ 1 - (v^2)/(c^2) ]^(-1/2)
On the other hand, if you keep to a low energy system but bring the scale down to sub-atomic particles, such as electrons, things change yet again, but this time in an entirely new way. This is where Wave-Particle dualtity theory comes into play, the theory that waves (namely electromagnetic, i.e. light) are particles, and particles are wave packets. not only do you need to account for this, but you also need to take into account Heisenbergs uncertainty principle; It is impossible to know both the exact velocity and exact position of a sub atomic particle, the more certain you make one the less certain the other becomes.
Finally we come to Quantum Field Theory, which i honestly do not know anything about, at least i won’t until third year physics when i start taking courses on it.
I’ve made a huge mistake.
- Everyone (literally), the Silmarillion
Everyone, literally, in graduate school.
So this one time
This girl asked me to explain graphene
So I drew it for her
and I explained it
and I showed her the honeycomb structure
but here’s the thing
it was saturday and i was kinda drunk
so I followed up with, “And as far as we know, despite the honeycomb shape, it is not made by sub-atomic-particle-bees, but that would be really cool”
good job me
Nylon Stockings under the SEM.
Not sure what this looks like.
It is a gold particle under some electron beam resist on a silicon wafer.
A growing Pythagoras’ fractal tree.
Desmatosuchus, one of that mighty lineage of armor-backed pseudosuchians, the aetosaurs (or as Darren Naish once aptly termed them, the armadillodiles). It joins its distant relatives Shuvosaurus, Effigia, and Simosuchus in defying the carnivory we may come to expect from croc-line archosaurs. The shovel-like snout and peg-shaped teeth of aetosaurs would seem to pin them as herbivores.
All the same, it has been postulated before that these were instead adaptations for insectivory, and an abstract has been around since 1995 toting around the supposed discovery of a carnivorous aetosaur. Personally I wouldn’t be surprised if they were something more akin to boar-like, omnivorous scavengers of Triassic forests.
Desmatosuchus was among the larger members of the family, spanning about 5 meters (16 feet) in length. It’s known from the Late Triassic of Texas.
Lest we forget, today is Liberty Bell 7 day. We miss you, old friend.
Earth isn’t the only planet in the solar system with spectacular light shows. Both Jupiter and Saturn have magnetic fields much stronger than Earth’s. Auroras also have been observed on the surfaces of Venus, Mars and even on moons (e.g. Io, Europa, and Ganymede). The auroras on Saturn are created when solar wind particles are channeled into the planet’s magnetic field toward its poles, where they interact with electrically charged gas (plasma) in the upper atmosphere and emit light. Aurora features on Saturn can also be caused by electromagnetic waves generated when its moons move through the plasma that fills the planet’s magnetosphere. The main source is the small moon Enceladus, which ejects water vapor from the geysers on its south pole, a portion of which is ionized. The interaction between Saturn’s magnetosphere and the solar wind generates bright oval aurorae around the planet’s poles observed in visible, infrared and ultraviolet light. The aurorae of Saturn are highly variable. Their location and brightness strongly depends on the Solar wind pressure: the aurorae become brighter and move closer to the poles when the Solar wind pressure increases.
Credit: ESA/Hubble (M. Kornmesser & L. Calçada)
circumhorizontal arcs photographed by (click pic) david england, andy cripe, del zane, todd sackmann and brandon rios. this atmospheric phenomenon, otherwise known as a fire rainbow, is created when light from a sun that is at least 58 degrees above the horizon passes through the hexagonal ice crystals that form cirrus clouds which, because of quick cloud formation, have become horizontally aligned. (see also: previous cloud posts)
Parametric curves by[R-D]